FAREWELL!!!!!

FAREWELL!!!!!

Well folks we have come to end….. 😦 ….. We have learnt alot and would like to take this opportunity to thank our lecturer. Sir you have truly been an inspiration. You have encouraged us , and supported us in every way and you have always been a great help. You made complicated things seem easy and with your personality combined, this course was truly enjoyed, and we would like to take this moment to express our appreciation for you being with us. To our fellow students we had fun and will all put our best foot forward and strive for success. GOOD LUCK IN EXAMS!!!!!!!!! And hope to see you all next Semester…. 😀

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Published Paper Review 2 on Pancreatitis (Enzymes)

IMAGE 78

What is Pancreatitis????

Reference: National Institues Of Health (NIH).2012.‘‘Pancreatitis” Accessed February 22, 2014. http://www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/pancreatitis/

This is caused as a result of inflammation in the pancreas. As we should know the function of the pancreas is to secrete enzymes through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. These enzymes then combine with bile to digest food. Another function of the pancreas as mentioned in an earlier reflection is to produce insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. These enzymes are not active till they arrive at the small intestine. However when the pancreas is inflamed, the enzymes inside it attack and damage the tissue that produce them. This leads to infection, bleeding and there may be permanent damage to the tissue.
There are two types chronic and acute
Chronic. This is where there is no healing of the pancreas and this can be permanent. Here the enzymes attack the pancreas and causes a lot of pain.
Causes???—If you have high calcium levels in the body
If you consume large amounts of alcohol
If you have high levels of fat in the body
Certain medicines
If you have hereditary disorders of the pancreas
Cystic fibrosis can also lead to it
How do you know if you have it???
A pain in the upper abdominal region.
Have you been vomiting?
Losing weight?
Having diarrhoea or oily stools?

Diagnosis-Many times acute is mixed up with chronic.
-A medical history can be conducted
-The doctor can carry out a physical examination.
-Blood tests – to find out if the pancreas is producing sufficient digestive enzymes.
-Blood urine and stool test
-X-rays of the abdomen CT scan EUS and MRCP

Cure– Patient may need treatment for managing the pain and IV hydration. If weight loss is continuous patient may require nasogastric feeding.
When the pancreas returns to a normal diet they may use synthetic pancreatic enzymes if the pancreas does not produce sufficient amounts.
Then a dietician is recommended to a plan a small but frequent low fat diet.
Patients must consume a lot of fluids and must stay of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks as well as cigarettes.

Acute -Sudden inflammation in the pancreas that goes away with a few days treatment.
Causes??? When persons have gallstones- When these are passing through the common bile duct they cause inflammation in the pancreas
Can occur within two days of drinking alcohol.
Other causes
Having trauma in the abdominal region
Having infections, tumours or genetic abnormalities in the pancreas.
How do you know you have it????
-Do you experience pain sudden or gradual in the upper region of your abdomen?
-Do you suffer from swollen and tender abdomen?
-Experiencing nausea and vomiting?
-Have a fever?
-Having fast pulse?

Diagnosis-Due to the location of the acute pancreatitis it is difficult for diagnosis.
So……… an abdominal ultrasound, Computerized tomography CT scan, endoscopic ultrasound and Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography must be performed.
Cure Similar to that of chronic
Hope this was an informative piece about pancreatitis as I, myself have learnt a lot !!
See you next time… 🙂

Reference for Image:

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